Six local authorities across five parishes have been selected to participate in a project geared at stimulating economic development at the community level.This is under the Caribbean Local Economic Development Project (CARILED), which is a six-year programme funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Development, Canada (DFATD). It is focused on stimulating sustainable local economic development in the Caribbean region.Jamaica is one of seven Caribbean countries selected to benefit under the initiative, through six local authorities, namely, the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC); the St. Catherine, Clarendon, Manchester, and Westmoreland parish councils; and the Portmore Municipal Council.Minister of Local Government and Community Development, Hon. Arscott, said the initiative is aimed at mobilising and using primarily local resources, assets and institutions to stimulate economic growth in communities.He was speaking September 26 at a one-day Local Government symposium at the University of the West Indies (UWI) Regional Headquarters in St. Andrew, to introduce elected officials to the concept of local economic development and to sensitise them of their roles.The Minister informed JIS News that very tangible economic development projects will be pursued in all six local authorities under the proposed initiative.“Several very unique projects will be identified by the respective communities. For example, the KSAC has already identified a project where they are collecting plastic bottles and compacting them for export. This is part of a recycling programme to help relieve the city and the landfill of these large quantities of plastic bottles,” he stated.He also informed that in Clarendon, residents have identified a project to further take advantage of the many benefits of the Milk River Spa.“This project will be implemented in collaboration with the Tourism Enhancement Fund and seeks to create a nucleus of activities utilising the river, flora and fauna. We will be creating a cactus park and setting up a bed and breakfast to complement the rooms already in the hotels, among other things,” Mr. Arscott disclosed.The Minister noted that the CARILED project is very timely, as it comes at a time when the Government of Jamaica has identified local economic development as a strategic policy intervention.Mayor of Kingston and St. Andrew, Senator Angela Brown-Burke, stated that stimulating economic development in the micro and small business sector is one of the keys to creating lasting economic growth on a national scale.She said the CARILED project also presents a unique opportunity to further include Jamaica’s youth population in national development.Head of Aid, DFATD, Marie Legault, pledged that the Canadian Government will continue to provide technical and financial assistance to Jamaica and the rest of the region in the area of economic growth.She noted that in this vein the Government has earmarked an investment of US$600 million over a period of 12 years for the Caribbean to focus on this priority area.Ms. Legault informed that CARILED forms part of this pledge and is geared towards revitalising local communities and local businesses.Launched in 2012, CARILED is headquartered in Trinidad and Tobago with sub-offices in St. Lucia and Ottawa, Canada.The project is being implemented by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) in partnership with the Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF), the Caribbean Association of Local Government Authorities (CALGA) and the Caribbean Federation of Local Government Ministers (CFLGM).It aims to partner with 50 local government authorities to support the growth and development of 500 micro, small and medium enterprises. CARILED is a six-year programme funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Development, Canada. Jamaica is one of seven Caribbean countries selected to benefit under the initiative. It is focused on stimulating sustainable local economic development in the Caribbean region. Story Highlights
Alternatives to Netflix Share your voice 10 best free movie streaming services: Netflix alternatives for 2019 Netflix alternative Tubi passes 20 million monthly active users Tags 59 Photos 2 3:19 “The Office is one of our most prized series,” Pearlena Igbokwe, president of Universal Television, said Tuesday. The series was produced by Universal Television in partnership with Deedle-Dee Productions and Reveille Productions.NBCUniversal now has the rights to The Office — which it called a beloved gem — for five years beginning in 2021. The series, which ran for nine seasons from 2005 and starred Steve Carrell, is the most viewed on any streaming service, the company added. It has been viewed for 52 billion minutes, according to NBC.”We’re sad that NBC has decided to take The Office back for its own streaming platform — but members can binge watch the show to their hearts’ content ad-free on Netflix until January 2021,” Netflix tweeted Tuesday afternoon. The Office is moving from Netflix to NBC’s streaming platform in 2021. Mitchell Haaseth/NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images The Office will be departing Netflix for NBCUniversal’s future streaming platform, the original producer of the show announced Tuesday. But you’ve still got until January 2021 to catch the US show’s nine seasons on Netflix.NBCUniversal — the Comcast media giant behind the Jurassic World franchise and TV networks including NBC, Bravo and Syfy — in January announced plans to launch a streaming service next year. It will feature NBC programming as well as content from outside producers. Now playing: Watch this: See all the Stranger Things season 3 photos Comments Top 5 reasons why Netflix should be scared Culture TV and Movies
YouTube: CBS DenverLocal residents in Denver were all pulled to a state of shock when a mysterious black ring appeared in the sky. The incident apparently happened two weeks ago, and the news was soon reported by local media outlets. After seeing the mysterious sighting, many people claimed that it might be either fireworks or a volcanic activity which might have created the sky right.As the image went viral on online spaces, self-proclaimed extraterrestrial researcher Scott C Waring analysed it and outlandishly claimed that the black ring in the skies could be actually an alien UFO. Waring also added that Denver is a hotbed of UFO activities, and made it clear that a faulty alien cloaking technology might be the result of this weird sighting.”Denver is a UFO hotspot with most of its citizens have seen UFOs in the area. It is totally possible that this ring is actually the outline of an alien cloaked craft that is having difficulties keeping cloaked. It is also possible that a UFO shot off so fast that it left a black ring around it. Lots of white glowing balls have been seen over the Denver area near the Rocky Mountains for decades, so its no surprise to see such oddities in the sky above Denver,” wrote Waring on his website ET Data Base.A few weeks back, a series of images snapped from Mount Shasta mountain, California had gone viral on the internet. These images showed a cigar-shaped UFO with light emanating from its body leaving the mountain ranges. The eyewitness who captured this strange incident passed on the images to Mutual UFO Network (UFO) and the non-profit organization is now apparently busy checking whether these photographs are authentic.Waring who operates from Taiwan strongly believes that aliens are continuously visiting the earth to monitor human activities. A few months back, he even went a step ahead and urged the United States president to make him the head of NASA, so that he can unveil more crucial secrets regarding alien life.Interestingly, Dr Young-hae Chi, a top Oxford researcher had also recently revealed that interbreeding between aliens and humans are quite common. The researcher also made it clear that alien hybrids born from mixed parentage are capable of surviving climate change easily, and thus they will emerge as the most dominant species on earth.
Mani Shankar Aiyar is trending on social mediaTwitterWith just five days remaining for the final phase of the 2019 Lok Sabha elections, Congress leader Mani Shankar Aiyar, known for his controversial remarks and conspicuous by his absence this election season, shot into the limelight again. He justified his ‘neech’ jibe at Prime Minister Modi in 2017 by describing them as ‘prophetic’ and attacking him with other strong words such as vacuous and foul-mouthed in an opinion piece penned for Rising Kashmir, an English newspaper.While this has led to intense debate on news channels, the social media too is abuzz with reactions to Aiyar’s attack on PM. However, as is often the case in the cyberworld, it’s not just outrage or anger that is on display but also a great sense of humour. Many members of the Twitterati have decided to poke fun at the veteran Congress leader by making jokes and memes about him.Rajya Sabha member and senior columnist Swapan Dasgupta, who is helping BJP’s campaign in West Bengal, put out a sarcastic tweet that also takes a jibe at him. “Welcome back my good friend Mani Shankar Aiyar. Reassured that you weren’t there in Balakot. The BJP regretted your absence during the campaign but there is still the final over left,” wrote the former editor on his timeline.But he wasn’t alone in combining criticism with a sense of humour. There were plenty of others. Here are some of the funniest tweets that have been seen on the social media platform. Mani Shankar Aiyar being welcomed. By BJP supporters. pic.twitter.com/06fZhhFZGq— Anand Ranganathan (@ARanganathan72) May 13, 2019
Reuters fileInfosys will be giving a salary hike to its approximately 2 lakh employees, but there is not much to cheer about for the workforce for two reasons: the Bengaluru-based company won’t be paying arrears for the April-June period since the hike will be effective from July 1 and the rate of increase at 5-11 percent on an average is lower than last year.The company had 2,00,364 employees as of March 31, 2017, according to regulatory filings.Also read: Salary hike for Infosys, TCS, Wipro, Tech Mahindra employees will be interesting The hike will be a tad higher for top performers, in the range of 9-11 percent, Moneycontrol.com reported, citing news agency Cogencis.Last year, Infosys had announced a hike in the range of 6-12 percent, with onsite staff getting 1 percent pay increase on an average, lower than 2 percent in 2015.The share price of the company was trading almost flat at Rs 954 on the BSE at around 9.45 am. The Sensex was down 10 points at 31,199. TCS is yet to make an announcement on raising salaries of its employees while Wipro is reported to have given an average hike of 5 percent this year, according to a Times of India report.Shareholders of the two companies were kept in good humour, with Wipro declaring 1:1 bonus issue and TCS buying back shares. Hiring and headcount details based on company filings.Quarterly results and statements.
IBTimes VideoRelated VideosMore videos Play VideoPauseMute0:00/0:50Loaded: 0%0:00Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE-0:50?Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedSubtitlessubtitles settings, opens subtitles settings dialogsubtitles off, selectedAudio Trackdefault, selectedFullscreenThis is a modal window.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window. COPY LINKAD Loading … Close This has to be the coolest PUBG Mobile trick, EVER!!! PUBG Mobile has become a household name in India and across the globe. Be it for good or bad reasons, PUBG Mobile is a hot topic of discussion among friends and families. For its players, PUBG Mobile brings an ultimate gaming experience without having a gaming setup in place. But that’s not the only reason why PUBG Mobile is so popular.Tencent Games, developer of PUBG Mobile, is constantly updating its battle royale game with new features and content that is attracting new players while keeping existing ones engaged to the game. But an upcoming update to PUBG Mobile has to be the most exciting one ever as it brings fresh weapons and content straight out of players’ wild imaginations.PUBG Mobile has updated its Chinese beta version of the app to introduce helicopters, new combat vehicle, enhanced weapons like RPGs and much more. Sadly, there’s no word on if and when the new content will arrive for the masses, but it could eventually make it to the rest of the world when the developers think it’s ready.For now, players can either wait in the excitement of the new update or try downloading the Chinese version of the game on the phone to test the new features. But doing so won’t sync your game progress, neither will it allow you to play with your mates unless they also have the Chinese version installed on the phones. PUBG Mobile updateScreenshotRegardless of what option you choose, it’s worth checking out the new content in the upcoming update before it is officially released.HelicoptersThis has to be the single best thing in PUBG Mobile. We played Call of Duty Mobile and found the choppers to be quite exciting. Bringing helicopters to PUBG Mobile enhances the gameplay by taking the combat to the skies. Helicopters also make it easier to commute and spot enemies to take them out while flying.The controls are pretty simple, top arrow to lift, down arrow to land and the direction is controlled separately. The chopper in the game replicates the real-life Boeing AH-6 Light Helicopter and it appears up to 4 people can sit in it.As the pilot flies the chopper around, other players will be able to engage in the combat, just like in the case of a car or jeep. But a sample video shows that the helicopters won’t be a part of the Classic mode in Erangel, but a special Arcade mode. The details of it remain to be uncovered.RPGs, grenade launcher and moreWith a new mode of transport included in PUBG Mobile, players need to be equipped with capable weapons. PUBG Mobile also comes with RPG and grenade launchers so players in the chopper or on the ground can engage in a fair fight. Both these new weapons don’t have a long-range, so players would need to get close to the enemies to take them out. PUBG Mobile Lite has RPGsIBTimes India/Sami KhanAdditionally, there are several new items for players, such as a repair kit for the chopper, binoculars and more. Players also get a chute to land safely if they jump out a flying chopper.Combat vehicleIn addition to the choppers and new weapons, PUBG Mobile also has a new BRDM combat ground vehicle, which can withstand gunfire and explosions. The vehicle is already seen in the PC version of the game and it can travel both on land and in water. If not a helicopter, this can be a really cool mode of transport in the game.Check out a video published by Mr. Ghost Gaming on YouTube, which has been taken from a Chinese beta tester of the game.Let us know what you think and if the new additions are exciting.
BNPThe Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) on Wednesday called for intensifying diplomatic efforts to convince Russia and China to secure their support to resolve the Rohingya crisis, UNB reports from Cox’s Bazar.The main opposition party emphasised support from the two powers so that they do not exercise their veto power against any move by the United Nations Security Council to take a resolution on the Rohingya crisis.”We must continue our diplomatic endeavours to have a solution to Rohingya issue. Our diplomatic efforts will also have to deepen so that China and Russia don’t use their veto power at the UN Security Council,” BNP secretary general Mirza Fakhrul Islam Alamgir told newsmen after distributing relief materials among Rohingyas at Ukhia.The BNP leader said the government should make its best efforts to persuade all the influential countries to stand by the hapless and persecuted citizens of Myanmar.He said their party wants the government to give shelter to those Myanmar citizens entered Bangladesh in the face of mass killing and persecution in their own country for a temporary period on humanitarian ground.At the same time, Fakhrul said, the government also must take all-out measures to repatriate the displaced Rohingyas promptly ensuring their citizenship and dignity.On behalf of their party chairperson Khaleda Zia, the BNP secretary general also called upon all to stand by the repressed Rohingya with their humanitarian assistance.He said their party has long been demanding army engagement to carry out relief activities in Rohingya camps. “Discipline has been restored in distributing relief here as the government finally entrusted the army with the task.”The BNP leader said the government should increase its healthcare services for Rohingyas further and set up temporary houses for them.He said their party has been providing Rohingyas with humanitarian support since they started entering Bangladesh following persecution in Myanmar.The BNP leader said their party leaders are working for giving humanitarian assistance to the Rohingyas alongside its central relief team.Fakhrul, who went to Cox’s Bazar on Tuesday afternoon, handed over two trucks carrying relief materials of their party to army on Ukhia College ground on Wednesday morning.He later distributed the relief materials, including food, clothes, utensils and medicines, among the Rohingyas.
A bullet-hit woman being taken to hospital. Photo: Prothom AloAn activist of Juba League, the youth wing of ruling Awami League, was killed in a clash between two groups over controlling cable network business in Chattogram city.The deceased is Faridul Islam, 40. Several others including children were also injured in the clash. The incident took place at Mia Baper Mashjid area of DC Road under Chakbazar police station in the city on Friday. Speaking to Prothom Alo, victim Faridul’s daughter Farzana Fara told Prothom Alo that local Juba League activists Faisal and Russell shot her father dead as they wanted to control cable network business in the area for long.Although police were apprised of the matter, but they didn’t care, she alleged. If police remained in the spot, her father was not killed. Police patrol in the area after the clash. Photo: Prothom Alo.Chattogram Metropolitan Police deputy commissioner (South) SM Mostain Hossain said police visited the DC Road area on Friday morning as a tense situation was prevailing between the two groups over controlling cable network business there. As the situation became normal, policemen were withdrawn from the spot, he added.The police official said the law enforcers rushed to the spot as all of a sudden in the afternoon, a clash erupted between the two feuding groups. He said they were trying to detain those who were involved in the incident.
At left, a sketch of two grids connected by two generic sticky-ends (circled) and one specific sticky-end (right end). The atomic force microscopy image is at right, with the scale bar equal to 40 nm. Credit: Constantin Pistol, et al. DNA could be backbone of next generation logic chips In the second method, Pistol and Dwyer used all specific sticky-ends to connect two 4 x 4 grids. They found that, after the grids were connected, the sticky-ends could be reused in other connections. In this method, the scientists assembled four 4 x 4 grids to produce a 64-motif structure. “Once the two sticky-ends have joined into a double helix, their sequences can be re-used in another part of the system,” said Dwyer. “This requires that the nanostructure be formed hierarchically.”At a molecular weight of 8960 kD, the 64-motif structure is one of the largest programmable synthetic nanostructures ever synthesized. The scientists also predict that this method can be scaled even further before reaching a limit imposed when the generic interactions begin to dominate the process. However, studies in periodic DNA crystal formation suggest that the scale limit is nearly macroscopic.In analyzing their structures for defects, Pistol and Dwyer found that missing motifs were common, requiring defect-tolerant designs in future large-scale assemblies. If DNA nanostructures can be fabricated at the scales Pistol and Dwyer predict, then not only biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry would benefit, but future computer systems may use DNA, as well.“One of the benefits of DNA nanostructures for computers is device density,” Dwyer said. “The grid has a pitch of 20nm, and this is about half of the smallest device feature in Intel’s latest lithography process. The other benefit is manufacturing scale. Each experiment created a vast number of structures (~1012 or more) and this holds the promise of more complex and higher performance computers in the future.”Citation: Pistol, Constantin, and Dwyer, Chris. “Scalable, low-cost, hierarchical assembly of programmable DNA nanostructures.” Nanotechnology 18 (2007) 125305 (4pp).Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. In their recent paper in Nanotechnology, Constantin Pistol and Chris Dwyer explain DNA’s advantages over silicon in terms of its easy synthesis, control and asymmetrical complexity. While recent advances in the field of fabricating DNA nanostructures have produced rigid sequences, Pistol and Dwyer focused on developing a self-assembly method that enables simple and inexpensive scaling of the DNA structures. In addition, their grid-like structures consist of components that can be independently modified to create arbitrary patterns for different purposes.“The independent chemical modification of the motifs in the grid is important when generating templates on the grid,” Dwyer told PhysOrg.com. “Our computer architecture research is investigating how the DNA grids might act like scaffolds for other materials, such as carbon nanotubes. Arbitrary patterns of these materials are necessary to implement the kinds of circuits that we use to build computers.” The hierarchical approach to building nanostructures from DNA, beginning with nine oligonucleotides and resulting in an 8 x 8 grid. Credit: Constantin Pistol, et al. In their study, the scientists use a hierarchical approach: nine oligonucleotides (the structural units of DNA) form a cross-like motif, and 16 motifs annealed with streptavidin can form a grid. To build larger structures from these 4 x 4 grids, the scientists experimented with using two types of sticky-ends. “Sticky-ends are single-stranded pieces of DNA that can hybridize, or form a double helix, with their complements,” Dwyer explained. “A well designed sticky-end has only one true complementary sticky-end in the system.”The first type, the “generic” sticky-end, binds with only one helix instead of the normal two. This binding provides a relatively unstable interaction, which makes it easier to individually program two adjacent grids later on. The second type, the “specific” sticky-end, provides a stronger interaction and can control the weak interactions between the generic sticky-ends.In one fabrication method, the scientists bound together two 4 x 4 grids, using two generic sticky-ends and one specific sticky-end (the fourth grid arm was left open for identification purposes). The scientists found that the single specific sticky-end could dominate the entire connection, providing a scalable assembly method. Explore further Citation: For low-cost DNA nanostructures, recycle sticky ends (2007, March 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-03-low-cost-dna-nanostructures-recycle-sticky.html Scientists from Duke University have recently demonstrated a new method for assembling large, low-cost DNA nanostructures, in part by reusing the “sticky-ends,” the broken DNA strands used to connect the nanostructures. In their hierarchical self-assembly method, the scientists have demonstrated one of the largest programmable synthetic nanostructures ever synthesized. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Host cell-entry mode of African henipavirus could be its Achilles heel (2015, April 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-host-cell-entry-mode-african-henipavirus.html (Phys.org)—The recognition of a suite of African henipaviruses (HNVs), which are related to pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses, is a wake-up call to medical organizations worldwide. The initial symptoms of henipavirus infection—fever and headache followed by rapid-onset encephalitis—have likely resulted in misdiagnosis by medical workers as malaria-associated encephalitis, and fatalities from infection approach 90 percent. As a result of the symptomatic commonalities between henipaviruses and other paramyxoviruses, researchers are now reassessing the spread of HNVs. Crystal structure of GhV-G in complex with ephrinB2. The six-bladed β-propeller of GhV-G is shown as a rainbow ramped from blue (N terminus) to red (C terminus). The Greek-key fold of ephrinB2 is shown as a gray cartoon. Asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties are shown as pink sticks. Credit: (c) PNAS 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1501690112 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Mechanism found for development of protective HIV antibodies More information: “Molecular recognition of human ephrinB2 cell surface receptor by an emergent African henipavirus.” PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print March 30, 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1501690112AbstractThe discovery of African henipaviruses (HNVs) related to pathogenic Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) from Southeast Asia and Australia presents an open-ended health risk. Cell receptor use by emerging African HNVs at the stage of host-cell entry is a key parameter when considering the potential for spillover and infection of human populations. The attachment glycoprotein from a Ghanaian bat isolate (GhV-G) exhibits <30% sequence identity with Asiatic NiV-G/HeV-G. Here, through functional and structural analysis of GhV-G, we show how this African HNV targets the same human cell-surface receptor (ephrinB2) as the Asiatic HNVs. We first characterized this virus−receptor interaction crystallographically. Compared with extant HNV-G–ephrinB2 structures, there was significant structural variation in the six-bladed β-propeller scaffold of the GhV-G receptor-binding domain, but not the Greek key fold of the bound ephrinB2. Analysis revealed a surprisingly conserved mode of ephrinB2 interaction that reflects an ongoing evolutionary constraint among geographically distal and phylogenetically divergent HNVs to maintain the functionality of ephrinB2 recognition during virus–host entry. Interestingly, unlike NiV-G/HeV-G, we could not detect binding of GhV-G to ephrinB3. Comparative structure–function analysis further revealed several distinguishing features of HNV-G function: a secondary ephrinB2 interaction site that contributes to more efficient ephrinB2-mediated entry in NiV-G relative to GhV-G and cognate residues at the very C terminus of GhV-G (absent in Asiatic HNV-Gs) that are vital for efficient receptor-induced fusion, but not receptor binding per se. These data provide molecular-level details for evaluating the likelihood of African HNVs to spill over into human populations. Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences © 2015 Phys.org Since the 1990s, more than 20 henipaviruses have been detected throughout Africa, Asia, Australia and Central America. The virus resides in populations of Old World fruit bats and its introduction to humans is believed to be through animal intermediaries such as pigs, or through the slaughter of the bats themselves for meat. HNVs are extremely pathogenic, and have been designated as high-priority agents that require handling under stringent biosafety conditions.Due to the potential for spillover from animal to human populations, researchers are focusing on the molecular-level structure of the viruses in order to determine their host-cell entry activities. A group of U.S.- and U.K.-based researchers have recently published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that studies a human cell surface receptor recognized by an emergent African hepinavirus strain called GhV, derived from a Ghanian fruit bat. They found that despite targeting a particular binding scaffold that exists across a range of HNVs, the molecular differences between these viruses prevented cross-reaction of antibodies, inhibiting development of a vaccination strategy.Currently the only African HNV for which envelope sequence information is available, GhV is related to other highly contagious HNVs, and the researchers find that it displays an HNV-G β-propeller binding scaffold similar to that in Asiatic HNVs. Despite structural differences, these structures are capable of of accommodating nearly identical primary ephrinB2-binding modes at the surfaces of host cells. The researchers note that bat and human cell-surface ephrinB2 sites are quite similar and likely maintain similar modes of binding, and that cross-infections are therefore likely.They write, “… the apparent structural plasticity and low level of sequence conservation on the HNV-G receptor-binding β-propeller scaffold are likely to prove an obstacle in the rational design of vaccines that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies to the ever-expanding spectrum of HNVs and HNLVs.”The virus-receptor interaction was confirmed via crystallography, and the researchers noted significant structural differences with previously documented HNV-G-ephrinB2 structures, but not in the key fold of the bound ephrinB2. They conclude that this conserved mode of ephrinB2 interaction represents an evolutionary constraint across divergent HNVs.Through structure-based phylogenic analysis, the researchers found that GhV-G and its cognate in Asiatic NiV likely evolved separately, after the viruses bifurcated from a common ephrin-binding HNV ancestor. They speculate that the ephrin-2 binding site represents a constraint of evolution that has conserved ephrinB2 binding by HNVs, a potential Achilles heel that could be exploited in vaccine research. The researchers introduced GhV to antibodies against NiV, finding that they did not cross-react with the GhV-G binding scaffold. Those antibodies also failed to neutralize CedV, a distantly related HNV. Despite a failure to find these cross-reactions, the researchers note that all of the studied HNVs mediate ephrinB2-dependent host-cell entry, and suggest that prime-boost vaccination is a possible strategy for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies that can target the ephrinB2-binding sites across a diverse HNVs.